36, 3


Maria Orwid
Antoni Kępiński - w trzydziestolecie śmierci  365
Antoni Kępiński - on his thirtieth death anniversary  365
Summary
The texts of Antoni Kępiński eminate in the fascination with the psychic life of another person, his experiences and fate: His interests were in many fields
- amongst others, contact with the ill person, psychopathology, the interaction of man with the social and biological environment, questions of ethics and responsibility, the biological, and humanistic  bases of psychiatry. Kępiński views on learning - or getting to know another person, the concept of the judge's fault, the doserver's fault, the fault of the mask, the concept of  energetic and informative metabolism, are still present and meaningful in modern psychiatry. Looking at all his reviews from today's perspective, one can find in them all off the actual problems -either in the form of ready, developed concepts, or in the form of a signal indicating that he has noted the given problem.


Andrzej Kokoszka
Związki filozofii Józefa Tischnera z koncepcjami Antoniego Kępińskiego i jej psychiatryczne implikacje  373
Influence of Antoni Kępiński's ideas on Józef Tischner's philosophy and its psychiatric implications  373
Summary
Some issues of the philosophy of Józef Tischner, who died in 2000, were inspired by psychiatric works of Antoni Kępiński. They are presented and discussed in the paper and include: recognition of experiences of other men, phenomenon of hideout, phenomenon of mask, relation of power, society of dialogue, salvation dialogue. The opinions of Tischner on psychotherapy according to Kępiński are reviewed. The phenomenological description of value experience by Tischner was an inspiration for the concept of corrective experience of values, which is discussed.


Małgorzata Starzomska
Patologiczna żałoba w standardowych systemach klasyfikacyjnych oraz dotyczące jej implikacje prewencyjne przy wykorzystaniu Berlińskiego Paradygmatu Mądrości  385
Pathological grief in standard classification systems and its prevention implications according to the Berlin Wisdom Paradigm  385
Summary
The article emphasizes the place of pathological grief in psychiatric classification systems and suggests the need to precisely conceptualize pathological grief and diagnostic criteria which differentiate pathological bereavement from Major Depression and from ''normal" mourning. In addition the article presents results of the Berlin Wisdom Paradigm Research and suggests possibilities of using these results in pathological grief prevention. Finally the article describes difficulties in therapeutic work with people who suffer from such a human condition as mourning for a loved one.


Marek Jarema, Zuzanna Konieczyńska, Sławomir Murawiec, Tomasz Szafrański, Agnieszka Szaniawska
Zmiana jakości życia i obrazu klinicznego w schizofrenii  393
The change of quality of life and clinical picture in schizophrenia  393
Summary
The aim of the study was to determine how the quality of life changes during antipsychotic treatment in schizophrenia and whether there is any correlation between the change of quality of life and the change of clinical picture in 232 patients with the diagnosis of schizophrenia treated for 8 weeks with antipsychotic medication. The mental status improved significantly during treatment while patients' quality of life improved insignificantly. Severity of schizophrenic symptoms correlated negatively with patients' quality of life before treatment but not after treatment. Clinical improvement of schizophrenic symptomatology correlated negatively with the improvement of patients' quality of life. After treatment the quality of life was significantly worse in patients who had distinct depression before treatment, than in those without depression or with only slight depression before treatment.


Joanna Hauser, Paweł Kapelski, Piotr M. Czerski, Sebastian Godlewski, Monika Dmitrzak-Węglarz, Katarzyna Twardowska, Janusz K. Rybakowski
Brak asocjacji pomiędzy polimorfizmem VNTR genu DAT a schizofrenią  403
Lack of association between VNTR polymorphism of DAT gene and schizophrenia  403
Summary
The substantial importance of genetic factors in the etiology of schizophrenia was demonstrated in many studies. The complex model of disease inheritance seems to be the most probable, involving epistatic interaction of many genes. Association studies are based on the analysis of the so-called candidate genes, which are coding for neurotransmitter receptors, neurotransmitter transporters and enzymes involved in their metabolism. In the present work the results of an association study of VNTR polymorphism of dopamine transporter gene (DAT) in schizophrenia are presented. This polymorphism is characterised by a different number of tandem repeats (VNTR) within the 3'-untranslated region of gene. In Caucasians the 40 base pair motif has 3 to 11 repeats, the most common (about 90%) are alleles containing 9 and 10 repeats. In the present study no association between the polymorphism studied and schizophrenia was found.


Paweł Kapelski, Piotr M. Czerski, Sebastian Godlewski, Monika Dmitrzak-Węglarz, Joanna Hauser
Brak asocjacji pomiędzy polimorfizmem -141C Ins/Del w odcinku promotorowym genu DRD2 a schizofrenią  413
Lack of association between -141C Ins/Del promoter polymorphism of DRD2 gene and schizophrenia  413
Summary
Results of family studies show the importance of genetic factors in etiopathogenesis of schizophrenia. Susceptibility to the disease is probably due to an interaction of many genes. This association study was conducted to investigate frequencies of alleles and genotypes in a group of patients with schizophrenia and in healthy controls. We examined DRD2 gene promoter polymorphism - insertion or deletion of the cytosine in the position -141 of 5'-flanking region of this gene. No relationship between the polymorphism under study and schizophrenia has been found.


Katarzyna Kucharska-Pietura, Anna Hunca-Bednarska
Zachowania emocjonalne w schizofrenii i w jednostronnych uszkodzeniach mózgu. Asymetria półkul mózgowych. Część I  421
Emotional behaviour in schizophrenia and one-sided brain damage. Cerebral hemispheric asymmetry. Part I  421
Summary
Although, emotions play a crucial role in schizophrenia, the changes in emotional dimension in relation to brain asymmetry still remain controversial. The aim of our work was: 1) to compare the emotional behaviour between the examined groups: S - non-chronic schizophrenic patients (n=50), CS - chronic schizophrenic patients (n=50),
N - healthy controls (n=50), R - right brain-damaged patients (n=30), and L - left brain-damaged patients (n=30), 2) to assess the changes in attitude processes and in types of emotional reactions, its relation to lateralised hemisphere damage and chronicity of the schizophrenic process. All psychiatric subjects were diagnosed as paranoid schizophrenics according to DSM-IV criteria and were scored on the PANSS scale after four weeks of neuroleptic treatment. Brain-damaged patients were included if they experienced single-episode cerebrovascular accidents causing right or left hemisphere damage (confirmed in CT scan reports). The neurological patients were examined at least 3 weeks after the onset of the episode. Emotional behaviour was assessed using Observational Scale of Emotional Behaviour aimed at the evaluation of: A) attitude processes B) the emotional reactions. Our results revealed differentiated type of emotional behaviour in the examined population. Right brain-damaged patients significantly often revealed elevated mood, lack of adequacy of self-evaluation and active or negative attitude towards the environment. Left brain-damaged patients showed depressed mood, resignation, positive or seldom passive attitude to others and adequate self-evaluation. Schizophrenic patients mostly revealed indifferent mood and passive attitude to environment, their self-evaluation was rather adequate. Based on our data, the changes in emotional behaviour in schizophrenic patients might reflect frontal lobes dysfunction rather than dysfunction localised in one of cerebral hemispheres.


Anna Hunca-Bednarska, Katarzyna Kucharska-Pietura
Zachowania emocjonalne w schizofrenii i w jednostronnych uszkodzeniach mózgu - ekspresja i werbalizacja emocji. Asymetria półkul mózgowych. Część II  435
Emotional behaviour in schizophrenia and one-sided brain damage - expression and verbalization of emotions. Cerebral hemispheric asymmetry. Part II  435
Summary
Emotional behaviour in non-chronic and chronic schizophrenic patients, right and left hemisphere-damaged patients and healthy people was observed. Similar type of emotional reactions have been recorded in schizophrenia and right hemisphere damage. This might suggest the similarity of localisation of the cerebral dysfunction in the two patient groups. The difficulties with catching verbal expressions and verbal humour might be associated with the frontal cortex dysfunction.


Waldemar Gadecki, Irena Ramsz-Walecka, Elżbieta Tomczyszyn
Przypadek halucynozy muzycznej  449
Case of musical hallucinosis  449
Summary
The theme of the article is a 68-year old patient whose case was diagnosed as organic brain disease complicated by musical hallucinosis.The patient was admitted to a mental hospital, several times, as suffering from psychic disturbances of the auditory hallucinosis type whose dominant symptom are musical hallucinations. The most significant in the disease pathogenesis of the described case turned out to be the recognition of severe brain injury.


Marcin Jabłoński, Halina Lebiedowicz, Dominika Dudek, Beata Piątkowska-Jakubas, Magdalena Sariusz-Skąpska, Andrzej Zięba, Aleksander B. Skotnicki
Ciężka depresja z objawami psychotycznymi w końcowej fazie leczenia ostrej białaczki dwufenotypowej  457
Severe depression with psychotic symptoms, diagnosed in the final stage of treatment of acute bi-phenotype leukemia  457
Summary
The psychologic characteristics of a patient treated of acute leukemia in the ward of bone-marrow transplantation at the Haematology Clinic of CM UJ in Cracow, have been presented. During chemotherapy, proceeding the bone marrow transplant, the patient developped an acute depressive episode with psychotic symptoms. Following the transplantation and discharge from the Haematology Clinic, due to the insufficiency of out-patient treatment and a marked increase of psychotic depression symptoms, the patient was hospitalised at the Depression-Treatment Ward of the Psychiatric Clinic of CM UJ in Cracow. Changes of intensity and character of the psychiatric disorder in the following stages of haematologic and psychiatric intervention are presented. Adaptive strategies considering the important theoretical models according to the authors in connection to the general problem of depressive disorders accompanying neoplasmatic disorders have been described.


Agnieszka Mazur, Izabela Chojnowska-Ćwiąkała
Dynamika zaburzeń autystycznych u 13-letniego chłopca - opis przypadku  467
The dynamics of autistic disorder in a thirteen-year-old boy - a case study  467
Summary
This article presents the case of a thirteen-year-old boy suffering from autistic disorder. Special attention is paid to the occurrence of social and communicative deficiencies combined with cognitive disturbance which limit possibility of the autistic person to conduct a normal life. The inability to attain the coherence between various development aspects connected with different disharmonies is presented. There are distinctive disorders in respect to socialisation. The difficulties in understanding and anticipating the social environment complexity may disturb the dynamics of behaviour and release the tendency to social withdrawal, isolation and passiveness.
 

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