56_3_433

Psychiatr. Pol. 2022; 56(3): 433–452

 

Paweł Mierzejewski, Przemysław Bieńkowski, Andrzej Jakubczyk,
Jerzy Samochowiec, Andrzej Silczuk, Marcin Wojnar
 

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Pharmacotherapy of alcohol withdrawal syndromes – Recommendations of the Polish Psychiatric Association and the Pharmacotherapy Section of the Polish Society for Addiction Research

Summary
Alcohol addiction is one of the most common health problems. Long-term consumption of high doses of ethanol leads to numerous adaptive changes in the central and peripheral nervous systems, most notably adecrease in the activity of inhibitory GABAergic pathways and an increase in the activity of excitatory glutamatergic pathways. Up to half of patients may develop alcohol withdrawal syndrome (AWS) when they stop drinking alcohol. This article contains the recommendations of the Polish Psychiatric Association and the Pharmacotherapy Section of the Polish Society for Addiction Research for the pharmacotherapy of AWS. This paper presents the aetiopathogenesis, neurotransmitter and receptor mechanisms, symptoms and diagnostic criteria of AWS, medications used in the treatment of alcohol withdrawal syndromes, management of uncomplicated and complicated alcohol withdrawal syndromes, and discusses the management of special populations. First-line drugs in the management of AWS are benzodiazepines (BDZ). Most studies have not shown a superiority of any BDZ in the treatment of AWS. The decision to choose a formulation should be based on its pharmacokinetic properties, comorbidities, and the patient’s current condition. The most commonly used BDZs are diazepam, lorazepam, oxazepam, and clorazepate.




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Pharmacological Reports

 


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