Online First Nr229

Psychiatr. Pol. ONLINE FIRST Nr 229: 1–12
 
Published ahead of print 4 May 2021
 
 
Przemysław Zakowicz, Joanna Pawlak


FREE ENGLISH FULLTEXT:
Glycine transporters in schizophrenia. A new hope or informational noise?
 
Summary
Currently, we observe a huge number of publications describing the role of glycine transporter (GlyT1) inhibitors in schizophrenia treatment. The concept of application for these drugs derives from the glutamatergic theory of schizophrenia. This theory explains psychotic disturbances as the consequence of NMDA receptor functioning defect. The role of the mentioned receptor depends mostly on the presence of cofactors. One such cofactor is the simplest amino acid, glycine. This amino acid affects the glycine-binding site, located on the NR1 subunit of NMDAR and enables activation of the receptor. Substances enhancing the access of glycine to the receptor could hypothetically improve neuroplasticity. Higher efficacy of these neuroplastic processes may protect from cognitive deterioration and negative symptoms in the course of schizophrenia. In this article we present a systematic review of current literature on the topic of GlyT1 inhibitors in schizophrenia treatment (the state of literature as of November 2019. Firstly, we described the preclinical reasons for glycine enhancement use. Next, we used CINAHL, EMBASE, EMCARE, Medline, PsycINFO, PubMed and Google Scholar databases to extract and analyze evidence from clinical trials. GlyT1 inhibitors seem to have a potential in searching for novel substances in the treatment of negative symptoms, but their capacity to reduce cognitive deficits is not evidenced. So far, the clinical efficacy of several substances was proven, including N-methylglycine (sarcosine), bitopertin and derivatives obtained with chemical synthesis. Some of these substances demonstrate a beneficial clinical effect, but the number of published reports in this area is disproportionate to the value of evidence.


ISSN 0033-2674 (PRINT)

ISSN 2391-5854 (ONLINE)


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